# Variation theory and the improvement of teaching and learning

Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Variation

According to variation theory, there are a limited number of features of a given phenomenon to which we can pay attention at any given time. Variation theory is an extension of phenomenography and is the most commonly used theory for designing and analysing teaching in learning studies. Honoring the variation theory principle that meaning springs from differences, in this article we will show how two different strands of theorizing emerging from the mutual base of phenomenography have developed into developmental pedagogy and variation theory, respectively. objects of learning, i.e., on what students are expected to learn, rather than on the teaching arrangements. According to the variation theory, to help students appropriate certain objects of learning, certain patterns of variation and invariance that are co-constituted by the learners and the teacher are necessary. Learning Study model which was developed from Marton’s Variation Theory. The model has proved to be an important and effective means for improving teaching and learning.

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Variation theory of learning was developed by Ference Marton of the University of Gothenburg. One of its basic tenets is that learning is always directed at something – the object of learning (phenomenon, object, skills, or certain aspects of reality) and that learning must result in a qualitative change in the way of seeing this “something” (Ling & Marton, 2011). Variation Theory Variation theory explains that individuals see, understand, and experience the world from their own perspectives (Orgill, 2012). Therefore, students may not learn effectively if they are not aware of things in exactly the same way as the teacher (Lo, 2012).

According to variation theory, there are a limited number of features of a given phenomenon to which we can pay attention at any given time. Variation Theory is based on four key principles from Cognitive Science, namely that (1) the capacity of working memory is very limited, (2) every experience presents innumerable features that might consume one’s attention, (3) established collective knowledge tends to be well structured and reliant on highly specific “critical features,” and (4) humans are exquisitely attuned to change/difference. What is variation theory?

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The findings have also demonstrated that the complementary practice of constructivist pedagogy with variation theory as a viable and effective approach in seamless science learning, at which it deepened students' understanding through constructing the critical aspects of a phenomenon. Learning study is an adapted version of lesson study developed in Hong Kong and Sweden. It has commonalities with lesson study but is framed within a specific pedagogical learning theory – variation theory. Central in variation theory is the object of learning and what is critical for students’ learning.

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Students' knowing, students' learning and the instruction was analyzed using narratology, phenomenography and Variation Theory. The results show that in En variationsteoretisk studie om hur lärare behandlar ett matematiskt innehåll på Variation theory and the improvement of teaching and learning. Gothenburg They learn that even a little bird can be immensely important. philosophical attitude, restructuring of awareness, variation theory of learning.

Angelika Kullberg, Ulla
What is made possible to learn when using the variation theory of learning in teaching mathematics?

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Variation Theory Definition. Marton and Booth s Theory of Variation (1997) is drawn from the phenomenographical research tradition. According to Marton s Theory of Variation, discernment of critical features occurs under systematic interaction between a learner and the thing to be learnt, and variation is the agent that generates such interaction (Marton, Runesson, & Tsui, 2004) Learning Study model which was developed from Marton’s Variation Theory. The model has proved to be an important and effective means for improving teaching and learning. In this speech, I will report on the impact of the project on three levels: students, teachers and researchers. At the student level, the result is consistent with the 2.

Created by Sal Khan and Monterey Institute for Technology and Education. Language learning theories have been the subjects of heated debate for centuries, nay, millennia. Here's everything that modern language learners need to
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12 Mar 2018 In this lesson, we will learn about some of the work done by researchers in the areas of behaviorism and constructivism. We'll define the major. The variation theory of learning emphasizes variation as a necessary condition for In mathematics education, variation theory has also been used to explore
Ny artikel: What is made possible to learn when using the variation theory of learning in teaching mathematics? Angelika Kullberg, Ulla
What is made possible to learn when using the variation theory of learning in teaching mathematics?

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Little work has yet been done to explore the application of variation theory to teaching and learning mathematics in the earlier years. ‘Bianshi’ and the Variation Theory of Learning Illustrating Two Frameworks of Variation and Invariance in the Teaching of Mathematics In: Teaching and Learning Mathematics through Variation Variation theory offers a theoretical framework from which to explore possible variations in experience and the resulting differences in learning and understanding. According to variation theory, there are a limited number of features of a given phenomenon to which we can pay attention at any given time. What is Variation Theory 1.

Learning studies ( Marton and Tsui, 2004) attempt to improve the Japanese approach of Lesson
16 Feb 2015 2:00-2:30 Introductions and Variation Theory for beginners. – Learning Outcome Circle. 2:30-3:00 Reporting on Variation Theory study and
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### What is made possible to learn when using the variation

Introduction. 15 Apr 2018 Variation: a history Variation is the big buzzword in Teaching for Mastery, and rightfully so. It is the driving force behind the approach and the Variation theory concepts are used for both the analysis and organisation of The Variation Theory of Learning is a theory of the of learning” denote patterns of variation and invariance in 9 Feb 2016 Teaching maths to include procedural variation is central to the current debate Variation theory came to attention from studies of teaching 14 Aug 2020 Attribution theory social psychology, attribution theory in hindi, Attribution Theory in Social Psychology| Kelley's Co variation Theory| Mind Cognitive Learning Theory in Hindi| Tolman's Latent Learning| M The crux of Variation Theory (VT) is that humans learn through discernment and want students to see what variation theorists refer to as the object of learning. 7 Nov 2016 Phenomenographic & Variation Theory Marton and Trigwell (2000) explored this variation in learning situations and what can be achieved Learn about learning theories in psychology, which focus on the environmental influences on behavior such as reinforcement, punishment, and modeling.

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### Variation theory and the improvement of teaching and learning

From the phenomenological tradition; 2 What if there is no available model that match?

## Teaching and Learning Mathematics Through Variation

Under the leadership of Professor Ference Marton, we engaged in a project that used of Variation Theory as an explanatory Variation Theory Variation theory explains that individuals see, understand, and experience the world from their own perspectives (Orgill, 2012).

‘ Bianshi ’ and the Variation Theory of Learning: Illustrating Two Frameworks of Variation and Invariance in the Teaching of Mathematics 43 Ming Fai Pang, Jiansheng Bao and Wing Wah Ki 4.